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Apert syndrome is a genetic disease in which the seams between the skull bones close earlier than normal. This affects the shape of the head and face.
Apert syndrome can be passed down through families (inherited) as an autosomal dominant trait, which means that only one parent needs to pass on the faulty gene for a child to have the condition.
Some cases may occur without a known family history.
Apert syndrome is caused by one of two changes to the FGFR2 gene. This gene defect causes some of the bony sutures of the skull to close too early, a condition called craniosynostosis.
Several other syndromes can lead to a similar appearance of the face and head, but do not include the severe hand and foot features of Apert syndrome. These similar syndromes include:
The doctor will perform a physical exam. Hand, foot, and skull x-rays will be done. Hearing tests should always be performed.
Genetic testing can confirm the diagnosis of Apert syndrome.
Treatment consists of surgery to correct abnormal bone growth of the skull, as well as for the fusion of the fingers and toes. Children with this disorder should be examined by a specialized craniofacial surgery team at a children's medical center.
A hearing specialist should be consulted if there are hearing problems.
Children's Craniofacial Association -- www.ccakids.com
Call your health care provider if you have a family history of Apert syndrome or you notice your baby's skull is not developing normally.
Genetic counseling may be helpful if you have a family history of this disorder and are planning to become pregnant. Your doctor can test your baby for this disease during pregnancy.
Kinsman SL, Johnston MV. Congenital anomalies of the central nervous system. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW III, Shor NF, Behrman RE, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. 19th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 585.