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Hepatitis A is inflammation (irritation and swelling) of the liver from the hepatitis A virus.
Viral hepatitis; Infectious hepatitis
The hepatitis A virus is found mostly in the stools and blood of an infected person. The virus is present about 15 to 45 days before symptoms occur and during the first week of illness.You can catch hepatitis A if:
Not everyone has symptoms with hepatitis A infection, so many more people are infected than are diagnosed or reported.Risk factors include:
Other common hepatitis virus infections include hepatitis B and hepatitis C. Hepatitis A is the least serious and mildest of these diseases.
Symptoms most often show up 2 to 6 weeks after being exposed to the hepatitis A virus. They are usually mild, but may last for up to several months, especially in adults.
The doctor will perform a physical exam, which may show that your liver is enlarged and tender.
Blood tests may show:
There is no specific treatment for hepatitis A.
The virus does not remain in the body after the infection is gone.
Most people with hepatitis A recover within 3 months. Nearly all patients get better within 6 months.
There is a low risk of death. The risk is higher among the elderly and persons with chronic liver disease.
Call your health care provider if you have symptoms of hepatitis.
The following tips can help reduce your risk of spreading or catching the virus:
The virus may spread more rapidly through day care centers and other places where people are in close contact. Thorough hand washing before and after each diaper change, before serving food, and after using the restroom may help prevent such outbreaks.
Ask your doctor or nurse about getting either immune globulin or the hepatitis A vaccine if you are exposed to the disease and have not had hepatitis A or the hepatitis A vaccine.
Common reasons for getting one or both of these treatments include:
Vaccines that protect against hepatitis A infection are available. The vaccine begins to protect 4 weeks after you get the first dose. You will need to get a booster shot 6- to 12-months later for long-term protection.
Travelers should take the following steps to protect against getting the disease:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended adult immunization schedule - United States, 2012. MMWR. 2012;61(4).
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Recommended Immunization Schedules for Persons Aged 0 Through 18 Years - United States, 2012, MMWR 2012;61(05);1-4.
Advisory Committee for Immunization Practices (ACIP) Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Update: Prevention of hepatitis A after exposure to hepatitis A virus and in international travelers. Updated recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP). MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2007;56:1080-1084.
Wedemeyer H, Pawlotsky JM. Acute viral hepatitis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Cecil Medicine. 24th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011:chap 150.
Sjogren MH, Cheatham JG. Hepatitis A. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. Sleisenger and Fordtran's Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 77.
Victor JC, Monto AS, Surdina TY, Suleimenova SZ, Vaughan G, Nainan OV, Favorov MO, Margolis HS, Bell BP. Hepatitis A vaccine versus immune globulin for postexposure prophylaxis. N Engl J Med. 2007;357:1685-1694.